Carl Ransom Rogers (1902-1987)

On 5/27/09, Karl Dietz <> wrote:
> vorab: danke gerd für deine mail an die krixit! bin gespannt ob sich
> da was entwickelt...

yep. die krixit läuft dank kwp ganz gut. cc an ihn

>> ------- Weitergeleitete Nachricht / Forwarded message -------
>> Von: "Karl Dietz" <>
>> Datum: Fri, 22 Aug 2003 09:47:39 +0200
>> Betreff: [W2] Carl Ransom Rogers (1902-1987)
>> Carl Ransom Rogers (1902-1987)
>> Professor für Psychologie, Lehrtätigkeit an der Universität Chicago
>> und Forschung am Center for Studies of the Person in La Jolla,
>> Kalifornien.
>> * Nondirective," "client-centered," and "person-centered." are the
>> terms
>> Rogers used successively, at different points in his career, for his
>> method. This method involves removing obstacles so the client
>> can move
>> forward, freeing him or her for normal growth and development. It
>> emphasizes being fully present with the client and helping the
>> latter
>> truly feel his or her own feelings, desires, etc.. Being
>> "nondirective" lets the client deal with what he or she considers
>> important, at his or her own pace.
>> * Avoidance of Argument. Rogers was willing state his own position
>> clearly, and hear you out and listen to your position carefully. He
>> asked, "Can we learn from each other?" He was not interested in
>> winning arguments.
>> * Case histories. Rogers was the first person to record and publish
>> complete cases of psychotherapy.
>> * Congruence. Open, authentic, communication in which the way I
>> present
>> myself to the world matches what I think and feel at a deeper
>> level.
>> (Incongruence is similar to Jung's persona, or wearing a mask." It
>> may
>> be conscious deception or unconscious self-deception.) Rogers
>> writes,
>> "I have found, in my relations with persons, that in the long run it
>> does not help to pretend to be something I am not."
>> * Avoidance of Control; Responsibility for self. The person-centered
>> therapist consciously avoids control over, or decision-making, for
>> the
>> client, so that the client becomes responsible for himself or
>> herself.
>> This changes the power relationship between therapist and client
>> by
>> putting the control over decision-making, as well as the
>> responsibility for decisions, in the hands of the client.
>> * Curiosity. Rogers was deeply curious. He wanted to really
>> sense, hear,
>> feel what life was like for the other person. He had a
>> phenomenological attitude.
>> * Education. Rogers views our schools as generally rigid,
>> bureaucratic
>> institutions which are resistant to change. Applied to education,
>> his
>> approach becomes "student-centered learning" in which the
>> students are
>> trusted to participate in developing and to take charge of their own
>> learning agendas. The most difficult thing in teaching is to let
>> learn.
>> * Empathic understanding: to try to take in and accept a client's
>> perceptions and feelings as if they were your own, but without
>> losing
>> your boundary/sense of selve.
>> * The facts are always friendly. If new evidence shows that our
>> opinions, views, and hypotheses are mistaken, it leads us closer
>> to
>> what is true. This is learning, and though sometimes painful, it
>> leads
>> to a jore accurate way of seeing life.
>> * Feelings. "A vitally important part of therapy is for the person to
>> learn to recognize and express his feelings as his own feelings,
>> not
>> as a fact about another person." For example, "I feel annoyed by
>> what
>> you are doing," rather than, "What you are doing is all wrong."
>> * The Fully-Functioning Person. Rogers' term for an "ideal
>> personality."
>> A person who is open to her own experience, lives in the moment
>> in an
>> existential fashion, and is fully connected to her own stream of
>> consciousness, which is constantly changing. She trusts her
>> organism
>> and does what "feels right" in a situation. To be "fully functioning"
>> is not a finished state, but a direction we can be moving in.
>> * Human nature. Rogers believed that at a basic level, human
>> beings are
>> good and trustworthy. The more fully-functioning a person is, the
>> more
>> that basic nature will be evidence.
>> * Inner Freedom. This involves freedom from such things as threat,
>> and
>> freedom to choose and be.
>> * Judgment, evaluation, approval or disapproval of another person.
>> "This
>> tendency to react to any emotionally meaningful statement by
>> forming
>> an evaluation of it from our own point of view is the major barrier to
>> interpersonal communication."
>> * Learning. Significant learning is self-initiated, it has a quality of
>> personal involvement, and it is evaluated by the learner.
>> Meaningful learning is self-directed, experiential, and uses both
>> intellectual and intuitive processes.
>> * Listening. As a person learns to listen to himself he becomes
>> more
>> accepting of himself.
>> * Living in the moment. If I say, "I am this," or "I am that," it is
>> already past. For example, as soon as I can say, "I'm being
>> defensive," that itself changes things.
>> * Organismic values. Basic positive human and social values that
>> appear
>> to be common to all people at a deep level. These tend to
>> emerge as a
>> person becomes more open to his or her deep experience.
>> * Personal growth. Rogers' clients tend to move away from
>> facades, away
>> from "oughts," and away from pleasing others as a goal in itself.
>> Then
>> tend to move toward being real, toward self-direction, and toward
>> positively valuing oneself and one's own feelings. Then learn to
>> prefer the excitement of being a process to being something fixed and
>> static. They come to value an openness to inner and outer
>> experiences, sensitivity-to and acceptance-of others as they are, and
>> develop greater abilityachieve close relationships.
>> * Politics of relationships and therapy. How persons maneuver or
>> position themselves for power and control within relationships, both
>> personal and therapeutic.
>> * Politics in a broader sense. Applying Rogers' perspective, Assemblyman
>> John Vasconcellos says, "The basic struggle in politics is between
>> those who think people should be free to control their own destiny,
>> and those who think everyone should be controlled."
>> * Reflection, reflective listening, "active listening." A therapeutic
>> technique in which the therapist mirrors or repeats, in his or her own
>> words, what the client has just said.
>> * Research. Rogers was an early advocate for research on the
>> effectiveness of therapeutic approaches.
>> * Transparency involves expressing my deep feelings, as my feelings
>> rather than as facts about another, revealing myself as a person, real
>> and imperfect as I am, in my relationship with another.
>> * Unconditional positive regard. To give a client or person my full,
>> caring attention without judging or evaluating them. "It is a kind of
>> liking which has strength, and which is not demanding."
>> What is most personal is most general. The most private,
>> personal
>> feelings are often those which, if shared, would speak to others
>> most
>> directly.
>> * Willingness for another to be separate: Allowing others to have
>> different believs, feelings, values, and goals than you do.

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MfG, Karl Dietz